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smallgree



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PostPosted: Tue Sep 08, 2015 12:44 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Was looking at H. Sander's patent application and discovered shangri la, right in front of my eyes. I'm not going to give a dissertation about what I read, but the answer lies between the lines. This patent has been revealed for years and I could kick myself for not noticing. This is CHS's Freudian slip, for which I have vigorously searched. Just read it. The herb/spice mixture is secondary compared to this process.

I cooked up a batch with basic Sexton's and was shocked. My central air is down and I have been occupied, but I did take photos and will post later. Read, Read, Read! Then contemplate to see if you get the conclusions I do.

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Ken_Griffiths



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PostPosted: Tue Sep 08, 2015 12:58 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Can you provide a link please Fred.

Thanks

Ken
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smallgree



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PostPosted: Tue Sep 08, 2015 5:47 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote


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April 12, 1966 H. SANDERS 3,245,800

PROCESS OF PRoDfibING FRIED CHICKEN UNDER PRESSURE Filed Sept. 26, 1962 AIR PRESSURE [III I I I INVENTOR HARLAND SANDERS 3,245,800 PRGCESS F PRODUCING FRIED CEHCKEN UNDER PRESSURE Harland Sanders, Shelbyville, Ky., assignor, by mesne assignments, to Kentucky Fried Chicken Corporation,

Shelbyville, Ky., a corporation of Kentucky Filed Sept. 26, 1962, Ser. No. 226,319 2 Claims. (Cl. 99-107) The present invention relates to a method or process for producing fried chicken under pressure and constitutes a continuation-in-part of my copending application, Serial No. 610,965, filed September 20, 1956, now abandoned.

Generally the process contemplates the deep-fat frying of chicken under accurately controlled conditions of temperature, pressure, time, sizes of serving pieces, and amount and composition of breading used, for the purpose of producing superior taste, texture and appearance in the finished product.

I have found that chickens weighing between 2% and 2 /2 pounds dressed and cut into 8 to 10 serving pieces and correctly breaded should, for best flavor, texture and appearance, be dropped into relatively hot fat (350 to 400 Fahrenheit) to start the browning of the breading and to seal the exterior of the serving piece against loss of its natural juices. The cold chicken quickly (in I to 2 minutes) lowers the temperature of the accurately measured quantity of fat to a temperature of 250 P. Then the chicken should be cooked for about 8 minutes under about pounds per square inch of gauge pressure to maintain the 250 F. cooking temperature without further loss of moisture from the breading and without any drying out of the chicken pieces.

It is accordingly an object of the invention to provide a novel process for quickly and thoroughly. frying chicken under pressure in a manner to seal in substantially all the natural juices while browning the breaded surface thereof to desired crispness and appearance.

It is another object of the invention to provide such a process in which the time, temperature and breading composition are so correlated to the sizes of the serving pieces that optimal taste, appearance and texture of the cooked chicken are produced.

A further object of the invention is to provide a method of the character described in which air under pressure may be introduced under certain circumstances to prevent loss of natural juices from the chicken pieces.

Other and further objects of the invention will become apparent from a reading of the following specification taken in conjunction with the drawing, in which:

' The figure is a vertical sectional view illustrating a pressure cooker upon a source of heat and serving to illustrate the process hereinafter set forth.

Referring to the drawing, there is shown therein a stove generally indicated at 10 provided with a gas burner 11 supplied with fuel by means of a supply pipe 12 and provided with a grill 13 upon which is mounted a pressure cooker generally indicated at 14.

The pressure cooker consists of a receptacle 15 provided with handles 16 and a cover 17 having the customary flange 17 superposed over an inwardly extending flange 18 of the receptacle 15. Between the flanges 17' and 18 is interposed a gasket 19.

The cover 17 is provided with handles 20, a pressure indicating gauge 21 and a pressure controller 22. There is also provided in the cover 17 a fitting 26 to which an air hose 27 is connected, the air hose leading to an air pump or the like (not shown).

Seen within the container is a quantity of grease or the like indicated at 23, the level of such grease being indicated at 24 and immersed in the grease 23 there are shown pieces of chicken 25.

In carrying out the present process, it should be borne in mind that when water, for example, is brought to a steam pressure at 29.7 p.s.i.a., or fifteen pounds above atmospheric pressure at sea level, that the boiling point of such water is now 250 Fahrenheit compared with 212 Fahrenheit at atmospheric pressure and that this 38 Fahrenheit differential between the normal boiling point and fifteen pounds pressure above normal results in cooking speeds from two to ten times faster than that possible with other methods.

In the present case, grease, oil or other cooking compound is first placed in a container and then brought to a temperature of 350 to 400 Fahrenheit after which raw chicken, separated into its usual component parts and coated with a moist layer of breading material of predetermined average thickness and moisture content and seasoned, is placed in the cooking compound whereupon the latter drops to a temperature of from 250 to 275 Fahrenheit. The lid is then sealed upon the container and the pressure allowed to build up to approximately fifteen pounds above atmospheric pressure or approximately double the atmospheric pressure. This building up of pressure usually takes from one and one-half to two minutes. With the pressure remaining at fifteen pounds above atmospheric pressure or approximately double the atmospheric pressure, the temperature of the cooking compound will perforce remain at approximately 250 Fahrenheit.

cooking compound has reached approximately 250 Fahrenheit whereupon the pressure may be released and the chicken then removed wholly cooked.

A typical operation employing the herein disclosed process will now be described. Two chickens each weighing from 2% to 2 pounds are cut into from 16 to 20 serving pieces. The pieces are immersed in a dip made of skimmed or reconstituted skimmed milk and whole eggs (approximately eight per gallon of milk). The dipped pieces are then rolled in flour to which has been added salt and other seasoning ingredients.

The approximately 4 /2 to 5 pounds of breaded pieces are dropped into the cooker 14 in which seven to eight quarts of cooking fat have been brought temporarily to a temperature of about 400 F. The chicken and fat are stirred a few seconds and the cover 17 is promtply applied. The hot fat quickly brings the moisture in the breading coating to the normal boiling point and thus starts building up the pressure within the cooker 14 while the cooling effect of the steam generation quickly lowers the fat temperature to about 250 F., taking from 1 to 2 minutes. Since this temperature corresponds to a gauge pressure of 15 pounds per square inch, further desiccation of the breading is arrested at this time, but its desired final crispness and color have already been determined.

The burner 11, which had been turned to high heat during the short browning and sealing period, is now turned to its low cooking setting which maintains the desired temperature of 250 F. and pressure of 15 pounds per square inch above atmospheric pressure. After eight improved flavor and color in the chicken but also con- This temperature and pressure are maintained for a period of about eight minutes after the 3 'vc fat by preventing the breaking down thereof that mid otherwise rapidly occur at temperatures above 0 F. For larger quantities of chicken, a larger cooker and/ or oportionately more cooking fat would be used. For oking smaller quantities, it is desirable to have the fat a lower temperature at the beginning of the operation. ll example, to cook one chicken, the temperature ould be about 370 P. so that the bath temperature a be lowered to the desired 250 F. and 15 pounds uge pressure in the two minutes allowed for the brown- {and sealing phase of the process. If for any reason the temperature and pressure should 11 to be lowered to the desired values in two minutes, mprcssed air will be introduced into the cooker 14 rough the conduit 27 in quantity and at the pressure cessary to arrest further generation of steam by evapo- ;ion of more water and juices from the breading and icken. Thus undesirable drying out of the breading d chicken will be prevented. The air pressure will ex- :d 15 pounds per square inch gauge at least by an wont to match the vapor pressure of water at the :vated temperature, and the cooking time can be reced proportionately to avoid overcooking and an atidant increase in toughness and stringiness of the Jduct. it will be found that chicken fried in this manner relyupon steam with or without added air pressure is not ly tender and tasty but of a golden brown color and t a deep brown or black which is often the case where ntinued heat'must be applied at normal temperatures. lC invention contemplates that the moisture from the a and breading under the present process will normally )vide the necessary steam within the container whereby raise the pressure within the container as above set 'th. The present process also contemplates the use of spices d seasonings applied to the chicken in the form of :ading prior to being placed within the cooking comu-nd and it will be apparent that because of the pres- 'e applied during the frying process of the present inition the meat of the chicken will become more thorghly impregnated with such spices and seasonings as a ult of the pressure applied during the frying process. will also be apparent that the natural-juices and flavor the chicken fried in the manner stated above will be tied into the meat and not be lost either into the atmosere or into the cooking compound as is ordinarily the re.

While but one form of the invention has been shown and described herein, it will be readily apparent to those skilled in the art that many minor modifications may be made without departing from the spirit of the invention or the scope of the appended claims.

What is claimed is: ii. A process of frying chicken, comprising: cutting raw chicken into serving pieces, coating said serving pieces with a moist layer of breading material of predetermined average thickness and moisture content, wholly immersing said serving pieces in a bath of liquified cooking fat heated in a pressure cooking vessel to a temperature between 350 and 400 F., hermetically closing said cooking vessel, reducing the temperature of said cooking fiat rapidly to a cook-ing temperature of from 250 to 275 F. in a time period of the order of two minutes while the pressure in said cooking vessel rapidly builds up toward a cooking pressure of approximately 15 pounds per square inch above atmospheric pressure as a result of the conversion to steam of excess moisture in said layer of breading material, and cooking said pieces in said fat for approximately eight minutes at said cooking temperature and pressure, said cooking pressure being at least sufliciently close to the vapor pressure of water at said cooking temperature to substantially prevent boiling away of moisture from said pieces and said breading material, whereby the optimal moisture content is obtained therein at the termination of the frying process.

2. A process according to claim 1 inwhich air is introduced into said cooking vessel at the end of the browing and sealing portion of said process in sufficient quantity and at sufiicient pressure to at least substantially equal the vapor pressure of water at said cooking temperature, so as to substantially prevent boiling away of moisture from said pieces and said breading material, whereby the optimal moisture content is obtained therein at the termination of the frying process.

References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,778,736 1/1957 Wagner 99--l07 X 2,827,379 3/1958 Phclan 99-l07 3,078,172 2/1963 Libby 99107 X A. LOUIS MONACELL, Primary Examiner.

HYMAN LORD, Examiner

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smallgree



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PostPosted: Fri Sep 11, 2015 3:03 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Effect of System Pressure on Boiling Point temperature:

Water:

00 psi - 212
03 psi - 221
05 psi - 227
10 psi - 242
12 psi - 248
15 psi - 257
20 psi - 272

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The Colonel
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PostPosted: Fri Sep 11, 2015 5:46 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Sorry SG! But you're gonna have to write that dissertation! I read through the patent, and tried reading between the lines, but alas... I must have missed it...

Can you connect the dots for me, mate? What is this new "revelation"?

TC

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Ken_Griffiths



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PostPosted: Sat Sep 12, 2015 8:05 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

TC

This post is aimed mainly at the new members of the TCK forum.

My thoughts on the colonel's patent posted by smallgree, is that the chicken immersed in the very hot fat, under 15lbs of internal pressure, (excluding the pressure above sea level for now) is expelling its water/moisture content very slowly, allowing it to cook, but retaining a lot of the internal moisture due to the pressure bearing down on its surface and as the 'slowly expelled' water moisture reaches the surface of the oil, it immediately turns to steam, as the heat is set just above the boiling point of water and therefore maintains the precise pressure bearing down on the chicken.

The chicken continues to expel its moisture at its slowest rate, because of the pressure and so the jiggler is just slowly moving side to side, to release the pressure to keep it constant and the heat remains just above the boiling point as shown in smallgree's table above.

After 8 minutes the chicken is cooked, but it's internal moisture has been maintained at its maximum level, whilst it was expelling the moisture so slowly and constantly, it was pushing the oil away from the breaded surface and so the chicken is less greasy and less oil laden.

It's important to not have the chicken pieces touching each other, as that prevents the moisture escaping.

So keeping the chicken slowly expelling moisture, under pressure, whilst maintaining the boiling point, makes the finished product moist and juicy, but less greasy. The colonel talks about introducing air into the top section to maintain the movement of the steam and keep the exact temperature.

Obviously if the temperature of the steam goes up the more moisture is expelled from the chicken and drys it out and if the temperature drops too low the more oil is absorbed by the chicken, making it greasy.

I don't think there any new revelations here though, nothing that has not been mentioned before on the TCK forum, but it shows that a good pressure fryer really needs a temperature gauge(s) on top to keep things working at an optimum level.

Sadly I don't have such a fryer myself, but trial and error with heat settings and timings can soon resolve the matter, plus it is important to use the same amount of oil and pieces of chicken which should be a regular size and not too large or small.

A 2lb chicken cut into 9 pieces as per this YouTube video seems to work well for me.. And I usually cook one or two batches of 4 pieces each and keep the 9th piece of chicken set aside for freezing or for future recipe-testing purposes. I have mastered the three x 3 piece chicken batch too.

How to cut your chicken into 9 pieces:
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It's also important after cooking the chicken, to get the pressure down as soon as possible and get the chicken out the pan before it has time to soak up the grease, as the pressure drops and the oil cools .. So the faster, the better it seems, is a good thing to make the chicken less greasy.

That's how I have always read the patent posted above, but if anyone has any different views or opinions, I would love to hear them.

Obviously the higher above sea level you are, the quicker the water will boil and turn to steam, so that is also a consideration for those that live in certain areas.

I just wish I could get a decent fryer that had an accurate temperature and pressure gauge ... preferably with a modern digital display, but I haven't found a suitable one yet for home use.

So the fryers I would recommend are the Magefesa Star Belly (B) or the Fagor Pressure Magic range.. or better still try and get your hands on a Mirro 16, which has a pressure gauge.

Ken
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tony



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PostPosted: Sat Sep 12, 2015 5:22 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

smallgree wrote:
This is CHS's Freudian slip, for which I have vigorously searched. Just read it. The herb/spice mixture is secondary compared to this process.

Maybe the point is right here. Isn't it?
Quote:

It is another object of the invention to provide such a process in which the time, temperature and breading composition are so correlated to the sizes of the serving pieces that optimal taste, appearance and texture of the cooked chicken are produced.

Seasonings were not mentioned at all. Good discovery!
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The Colonel
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PostPosted: Sat Sep 12, 2015 6:35 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Thanks Ken, and your more complete explanation will certainly help our newer members. Wink

However, I am wondering what SG means by Colonel Sanders apparent "Freudian slip"... I've read the patent process dozens of times, and I just can't figure out what he may be referring too.

I don't see anything "magical" or mysterious about it... And I don't see that it reveals anything but the basic science of pressure frying, which I understand fairly well.

So, Freudian slip, freudian slip, wherefore art thou, oh Freudian slip? Smile

TC

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Ken_Griffiths



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PostPosted: Sat Sep 12, 2015 7:48 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

tony wrote:
smallgree wrote:
This is CHS's Freudian slip, for which I have vigorously searched. Just read it. The herb/spice mixture is secondary compared to this process.

Maybe the point is right here. Isn't it?
Quote:

It is another object of the invention to provide such a process in which the time, temperature and breading composition are so correlated to the sizes of the serving pieces that optimal taste, appearance and texture of the cooked chicken are produced.

Seasonings were not mentioned at all. Good discovery!


Tony the patent says words to this effect towards the end ...

The present process also contemplates the use of spices & seasonings applied to the chicken in the form of being added prior to it being placed within the cooking compound and it will be apparent that because of the pressure applied during the frying process of the present inition the meat of the chicken will become more thoroghly impregnated with such spices and seasonings as a result of the pressure applied during the frying process. It will also be apparent that the natural-juices and flavor the chicken fried in the manner stated above will be tied into the meat and not be lost either into the atmosphere or into the cooking compound as is ordinarily the case.

So the colonel's 'pressure frying' patent does mention the use of "spices and seasonings" and states their flavour is impregnated deep into the chicken under pressure, rather than the flavour being lost through normal frying and to the atmosphere etc. giving it improved flavour.

That's how I read it. So I can't see what smallgree's revelation is either surrounding what he terms a 'freudian slip'.

Hopefully he will explain what he is seeing 'between the lines of the patent. Unless he is hinting at the use of a seasoning alongside the spices, rather than the colonel mentioning herbs?.. I did wonder why smallgree had mentioned in his original post on this topic, that he had cooked up a batch of chicken and tried adding some Sextons Seasoning and was surprised by the results he got.

Perhaps I'm reading too much into his original post above? I wondered moreso why he suddenly started using Sextons Seasoning ... What has made him add that to his recipe suddenly?

I thought it a strange thing to do in fact, especially looking back at his previous posts.

I'm sure he will explain things to us all in due course.


Ken
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Stringbean
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PostPosted: Sun Sep 13, 2015 10:22 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Quote:
The present process also contemplates the use of spices & seasonings applied to the chicken in the form of being added prior to it being placed within the cooking compound and it will be apparent that because of the pressure applied during the frying process of the present inition the meat of the chicken will become more thoroghly impregnated with such spices and seasonings as a result of the pressure applied during the frying process. It will also be apparent that the natural-juices and flavor the chicken fried in the manner stated above will be tied into the meat and not be lost either into the atmosphere or into the cooking compound as is ordinarily the case.


Hi Ken,

The sentence is part of the embodiments of the patent, its not part of his claim.
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tony



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PostPosted: Sun Sep 13, 2015 12:12 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Ken_Griffiths wrote:

I wondered moreso why he suddenly started using Sextons Seasoning ... What has made him add that to his recipe suddenly?

because this poultry seasoning contains ginger. even more - it contains jamaican ginger.
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Ken_Griffiths



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PostPosted: Sun Sep 13, 2015 1:06 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

String/Tony,

Perhaps I was reading more into smallgree's original post than he intended... I assume he will answer TC in due course and explain what he meant by the freudian slip.

I can't see what mistake or slip-up the colonel made either... I've read it several times, so I must be missing the point.

Ken
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smallgree



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PostPosted: Mon Sep 14, 2015 2:27 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

It is simple. CHS is admitting that his technique is losing flavor during the cook. This "invention", whether good science or not, simply shows that "he thought" a countering pressure would stop the steam pressure, and prevent the loss of the spice/herb flavor profile. Our problem was his problem. What would be his solution, without this invention (which is used today), to preserve the note? Increase the spices/herbs. That is not cost effective for a businessman.

Also, when he developed the process, knowing the degradation of the flavor profile, he must have sought out and used heat resistant flavorings.

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smallgree



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PostPosted: Mon Sep 14, 2015 4:21 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Can anyone direct me to the discussions concerning cinnamon. I always tasted cinnamon, but have been told it must have been allspice. I spent years using cinnamon in my concoctions, and some were quite good (wife hated).

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Ken_Griffiths



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PostPosted: Mon Sep 14, 2015 5:12 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Smallgree,

An interesting point of view. I always read 'the pressure frying patent' as keeping maximum moisture inside the chicken portions, whilst pushing the hot grease/oil away from its surface, making it healthier, but that the herbs and spice seasoning, wrapped in the breading flour, managed to impregnate deep inside the chicken due to the pressure applied towards the centre of the meat and in turn it created an improved and a more evenly distributed flavour.

I did not read the patent from a business or financial perspective, as a means of using less spice etc; but I guess that must be true.

I don't know that the colonel would have changed his spices just because some flavour was lost by the heat process, because surely that is true of any recipe deep fried in oil ... It's all about finding the balance of ingredients that gives the chicken its universal flavour... and a precise cooking process that maximises that flavour

I don't think he would have changed the spices or herbs just because they were more 'heat tolerant' .. He was 'chasing' and looking for a recipe that had a certain addictive flavour... One that appealed to the majority of his customers.

There's no point in making a cheaper 'heat tolerant' recipe, if the customer doesn't want to buy or eat it because it doesn't suit their palette.

I think the Colonel's priority, was to use the best ingredients to get the best flavour and give the people what they wanted, that was the 'key' to his success... I don't think he was a wasteful man, but nor do I think of the Colonel as trying to do things as cheaply as possible... He was, in my opinion, a fair man.

That's why people trusted him and he was able to do his deals and build a successful business on a handshake... There are not many people who can say that these days.

Ken
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